At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur

At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur

Genetic FactorsPeople with certain genetic risk factors are more likely than others to develop skin cancer. Genetic risk factors for skin cancer include having a lighter natural skin color; blue or green eyes; blond or red hair; dysplastic nevi (a type of unusual mole) or a large number of common moles; and skin that burns, freckles, or reddens easily or becomes painful after excessive time spent in the sun.18,24 People with red hair may be at particularly increased risk of melanoma.24 In addition, those with a family history or personal history of skin cancer, especially melanoma, are at increased risk.18-23Skin TypeSkin cancer risk varies by skin type, which is classified by how likely a person is to tan or burn. The six skin types of the Fitzpatrick skin type classification system are shown in Table 3.71 Sunburn often is used as a proxy outcome measure in skin cancer prevention studies because it takes into account the person’s skin type, as well as the intensity and duration of UV exposure. Although anyone’s skin can be damaged by UV exposure, people with skin types I and II are at the highest risk of burns, damage from UV radiation, and skin cancer.Table 3Fitzpatrick Skin Type. Originally, the Fitzpatrick system was constructed for white populations and had only four categories (Skin Types I–IV). Types V and VI were added to the system later in recognition of the wide variety of races and skin types.71 Because the Fitzpatrick system was developed to measure the skin types of whites, the terminology used may make it difficult for blacks or other races to classify their skin type.72 Although the Fitzpatrick system is often considered the gold standard for categorizing skin type, it may not always accurately reflect an indvidual’s risk of skin cancer, and other systems have been proposed.73,74Race and EthnicityRace and ethnicity play an important role in skin cancer risk because characteristics associated with race and ethnicity (such as skin, hair, and eye color) are indicators of melanoma risk. Blacks and Asians/Pacific Islanders have the lowest melanoma incidence and death rates, followed by American Indians/Alaska Natives and Hispanics (Tables 1 and 2). People of European descent and non-Hispanic whites have the highest melanoma incidence and death rates because they generally have lighter natural skin color.32,53However, race and skin type do not always align neatly, and wide genetic variation exists within races.75,76 People who identify as being other than non-Hispanic white may still be at higher risk of skin cancer because of their skin type and may underestimate their risk.63,64,77-79 Some black Americans report being sensitive to the sun.80 Recent data showed low reported use of sun protection behaviors among Hispanics, and melanoma may be increasing among some Hispanic groups.77,81
at what age does skin cancer typically occur 1

At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur

Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer These cancers are most often found in areas exposed to the sun, such as the head, neck, and arms, but they also can occur elsewhere. They are very common but are also usually very treatable. Here you can find out all about these cancers, including risk factors, symptoms, how they are found, and how they are treated. Melanoma Skin Cancer Melanoma is less common than some other types of skin cancer, but it is more likely to grow and spread. If you have melanoma or are close to someone who does, knowing what to expect can help you cope. Here you can find out all about melanoma, including risk factors, symptoms, how it is found, and how it is treated. Merkel Cell Skin Cancer If you have Merkel cell carcinoma or are close to someone who does, knowing what to expect can help you cope. Here you can find out all about Merkel cell carcinoma, including risk factors, symptoms, how it is found, and how it is treated. Lymphoma of the Skin Lymphoma is a cancer that starts in cells that are part of the body's immune system. Rare lymphomas that start in the skin are called skin lymphomas (or cutaneous lymphomas). Kaposi Sarcoma If you have Kaposi sarcoma or are close to someone who does, knowing what to expect can help you cope. Here you can find out all about Kaposi sarcoma, including risk factors, symptoms, how it is found, and how it is treated. More Resources WATCH VIDEOS Skin Cancer Videos Read More Skin Cancer Image Galleries Read More Skin Cancer Prevention and Early Detection News & Stories Read More Latest Skin Cancer News Read More Skin Cancer Stories of Hope Read More ACS Skin Cancer Research News Related Topics Take the Quiz Take the Quiz: Skin Cancer Read More Online Support Communities Read More ACS Skin Cancer Research Highlights
at what age does skin cancer typically occur 2

At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur

Indoor TanningIndoor tanning devices, such as tanning beds, tanning booths, and sun lamps, expose users to intense UV radiation as a way to tan the skin for cosmetic reasons. Although reducing UV overexposure from the sun can be challenging for some people, UV exposure from indoor tanning is completely avoidable. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified indoor tanning devices as Class I human carcinogens on the basis of strong evidence linking indoor tanning to increased risk of skin cancer.27,112 Meta-analyses have consistently shown that indoor tanning increases the risk of developing SCC, BCC, and melanoma (Table 5).27,113-121 The risk increases the more an individual uses indoor tanning, with younger and more frequent users having more steeply increased risk.113-121Findings consistently document a strong association between increased risk of melanoma and indoor tanning use, although the magnitude of the association varies from study to study, reflecting different populations and settings. A recent international meta-analysis that included 31 studies collectively reviewing 14,956 melanoma cases and 233,106 controls (individuals without melanoma) reported that individuals who reported ever indoor tanning had a 16% increased risk of melanoma over those who never indoor tanned.121 The association between indoor tanning and melanoma increased when analysis was restricted to more recent studies conducted in 2000 or later (22%) or when restricted to individuals who had used indoor tanning devices 10 or more times in their lives (34%).121 When analysis was restricted to the 11 studies from North America, including 4,395 melanoma cases and 79,358 controls, the increased risk of melanoma with ever using indoor tanning was 23%.121 In one U.S. study included in the meta-analysis, researchers reported a 74% increased risk of melanoma among individuals who reported ever using indoor tanning compared with those who did not tan.116 Findings from this study also reported a strong dose-response relationship, with greater risk for more sessions, hours, or years spent tanning.116Indoor tanning also increases the risk of BCC and SCC.122,123 For NMSCs, indoor tanning was found to increase risk of BCC by 29% and of SCC by 67%.120 A 2014 meta-analysis estimated that more than 400,000 cases of skin cancer may be related to indoor tanning in the United States each year: 245,000 BCCs, 168,000 SCCs, and 6,000 melanomas.124Initiating indoor tanning at younger ages appears to be more strongly related to lifetime skin cancer risk, possibly because of the accumulation of exposure over time from more years of tanning.114,116,118,119 The magnitude of increased risk with younger age at initiation varies because of differences in collection and reporting of data, but studies consistently show an increase in risk. A frequently cited meta-analysis estimated that tanning before age 35 increased risk by 59%.118,119 This risk estimate is based on a compilation of data from U.S. and international studies from different settings.118,119 One 2010 U.S. study found that ever using indoor tanning before age 18 increased risk of melanoma by 85% compared with never indoor tanning; risk for those aged 18–24 years increased by 91%.116 Years of use of tanning devices appeared to be the strongest predictor of increased risk in this study, with increased risk of 47% with 1 year of indoor tanning, 64% with 2–5 years of indoor tanning, 85% with 6–9 years of indoor tanning, and 145% with 10 or more years of indoor tanning.116 Harms of indoor tanning may be accelerated for adolescents and young adults, leading to early-onset skin cancers.115,125,126Although earlier studies describing the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer had been criticized for not accounting for skin type and outdoor UV exposure or sunburns,127 more recent studies have controlled for these factors, and these studies have also found that indoor tanning increases the risk of melanoma.116,125,128-131 For example, a 2014 study showed that individuals who tanned indoors without burning had an increased risk of skin cancer, regardless of lifetime sunburns experienced.128According to 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 13% of high school students, 20% of high school girls, and 27% of girls in the 12th grade had used an indoor tanning device, such as a sunlamp, sunbed, or tanning booth (not including a spray-on tan), one or more times during the previous 12 months.132 Results from CDC’s 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) show that some groups of young adults had high rates of indoor tanning, specifically non-Hispanic, white women aged 18–21 years (32%) and 22–25 years (30%). Among non-Hispanic, white indoor tanners, 58% of women and 40% of men did so 10 or more times during the 12 months before the survey.133 A study that combined data from the YRBS and NHIS reported that about one-third of non-Hispanic white women aged 16–25 tanned indoors each year.134No evidence exists to suggest that indoor tanning is safer than tanning outdoors or confers any substantial protection from future sun exposure. Studies have found that indoor tanning exposes users to excessive levels of UV radiation, especially UVA.135-138 The average intensity of artificial UV radiation was found to correspond to a UV Index of 13 or 14 (extreme), with some devices measuring even higher.135,136 Some studies have found that tanning devices may expose users to 4–13 times the amount of UVA as exposure from summer noontime sun in the District of Columbia, depending on the type of device used.136,138 In studies examining the relationship between UV exposure and skin cancer risk, indoor tanning is typically classified as intermittent UV exposure (similar to outdoor recreational exposure) rather than chronic exposure because of the acute intensity of the exposure.90,98 An estimated 3,200 people a year in the United States seek care in emergency rooms with injuries attributed to indoor tanning.139 In addition to increasing skin cancer risk, indoor tanning can cause burns to the skin, acute and chronic eye diseases if eye protection is not used, and, if tanning devices are not properly sanitized, skin infections.139-141

At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur

At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur
At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur
At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur
At What Age Does Skin Cancer Typically Occur